Lactate dehydrogenases in antarctic and temperate fish species

first_img1. The kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase (both forward and back reaction) in cardiac and skeletal muscle of an Antarctic teleost have been compared with a temperate teleost of comparable morphology and ecology.2. In both species the forward reaction (pyruvate to lactate) is maximally activated at 2.5–4 mM pyruvate and inhibited above this level.3. The Michaelis constant (Km) for pyruvate is not significantly different between muscle types or between species when measured at their normal environmental temperature.4. Km for pyruvate varies with temperature in a positive direction.5. The back reaction (lactate to pyruvate) is maximally activated by 12–16 mM lactate but only in skeletal muscle of the antarctic species is there inhibition above this level.6.6. The Km for lactate is significantly (P<0.05) lower in the Antarctic fish cardiac muscle.7.7. While the two species are morphologically and ecologically similar, differences at the biochemical level are discussed with respect to environmental temperature range and conservation of enzymic characteristics.last_img read more

Mothers of Disappeared Colombians Mark a Decade of Silent Marches

first_imgBy Dialogo July 09, 2009 Medellín (Colombia), July 8 (EFE).- The Mothers of La Candelaria marched silently through the streets of the Colombian city of Medellín today, as they do each Wednesday for the last decade, following in the footsteps of the Argentine Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo so that their disappeared loved ones will also not be forgotten. This movement, which brings together 1,775 families, arose at the end of 1998 in protest against the kidnapping of police and military personnel in the department of Antioquia, but mothers and other relatives of disappeared civilians joined a year later. Thus, since March 17, 1999, the mothers and all those who want to join them gather each Wednesday in the atrium of La Candelaria Church in Medellín, the most violent city in Latin America during the 1980s and 1990s. The legal representative of the Mothers of La Candelaria, Amparo Mejía, explained to EFE that the majority of the members of the group are relatives of individuals who disappeared in the hands of the now-dissolved paramilitary organization United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia (AUC), which demobilized more than 31,000 fighters between 2003 and 2006, following a peace agreement with the government. But there are also families whose loved ones were taken by guerillas, and others whose children or siblings were victims of state terrorism, of the so-called “false positives,” as extrajudicial executions carried out by members of the security forces are known in Colombia. Mejía’s “foster brother” was seized in 1997 by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) during a mass kidnapping of members of the military and police in Antioquia. This “brother” was freed in 2000 thanks to the humanitarian agreement negotiated between the FARC and then-president Andrés Pastrana, but three other members of Mejía’s family are still disappeared, and her father “was killed by the paramilitaries.” Amparo Cano, another of the Mothers of La Candelaria, has an equally devastating story: her husband disappeared on October 26, 2002 in a location known as San Agustín, where he had gone to look for wood. Cano is sure that the paramilitaries took both him and her stepson, who disappeared some time later, as she told EFE. Since then, she lives “in complete darkness,” because she has had no news of them, and in addition, had to move with her family to Medellín after receiving threats. Marta García’s son vanished in 2004, and three days after his disappearance a neighbor received an anonymous telephone call from a woman who told her that the paramilitaries had taken him. For her part, Doralina Carvajal delayed reporting the disappearance of her mother and a brother in the town of Bello on August 18, 2000, because she was afraid of becoming the victim of reprisals, but she told EFE that now she is no longer afraid. Her mother was literally taken from her home by a “Metro” block armed group from the AUC and her brother was grabbed in the street, Carvajal recalled. The experience of Alejandra Balvín, Amparo Cano’s daughter, is no less tragic. “My dad disappeared when I was thirteen. It was very hard; I became rebellious,” she confessed to EFE. Alejandra is now twenty years old and coordinates the movement of Sons and Daughters of the Mothers of La Candelaria, including nearly eight hundred children and adolescents who have lost one of their parents. According to Balvín, children “become emotionally troubled” as the result of a disappearance, as happened to her, and some even end up having to work in order to support their families economically. The young woman told the story of a boy who said to her that he wanted “to be a guerrilla in order to kill” those who took his father. In order to try to correct this kind of behavior, the movement of the Sons and Daughters of La Candelaria holds victim-assistance workshops with the support of the Medellín mayor’s office. Some of the Mothers of La Candelaria have also taken training courses with the aim of confronting the moment when they receive their loved ones’ remains after the Public Prosecutor’s Office authorizes the excavation of a gravesite, work which, according to Amparo Mejía, has been paralyzed by lack of resources. Since the Mothers began their struggle, the remains of twenty-five of their disappeared loved ones have been recovered. In order to find the others, the only recourse they have left is to hope that the dozens of detained and jailed former paramilitaries will provide information. The problem, as Mejía indicates, is that some of these former paramilitaries were extradited to the United States by Álvaro Uribe’s administration on drug-trafficking charges, before they could confess where they buried their victims.last_img read more

Arsenal tell players they can avoid salary cuts by qualifying for Champions League

first_imgArsenal tell players they can avoid salary cuts by qualifying for Champions League Advertisement Mesut Ozil’s £350,000-a-week salary contributes to Arsenal’s annual £230m wage bill (Picture: Getty)The only way the north London club can return to Europe’s elite club competition is by finishing in the top four, although fifth place could yet offer them a route back into a competition they were part of for 20 consecutive years, should Manchester City’s ban be upheld by the Court of Arbitration for sport. After an upturn in fortunes, masterminded by new head coach Mikel Arteta, the Gunnes are currently just four points adrift of Manchester United in fifth place, having played a game less, and a further three points behind London rivals Chelsea. As well as struggling to meet their on-field objectives, Arsenal appear to be fighting an increasingly difficult battle to keep hold of skipper Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang who has little over a year left on his current contract.The likes of Barcelona, Real Madrid and United have all been credited with an interest in the 30-year-old and on Saturday the former Borussia Dortmund star was advised to leave Arsenal for a club with greater ambition.More: Arsenal FCArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesThomas Partey debut? Ian Wright picks his Arsenal starting XI vs Manchester CityArsene Wenger explains why Mikel Arteta is ‘lucky’ to be managing ArsenalGabon’s FA president Pierre, Alain Mounguengui, told ESPN: ‘I don’t want to say that Arsenal aren’t ambitious, but Arsenal don’t have ambitions as high as some other clubs as far as Europe is concerned.‘So if Pierre could secure a contract with a more ambitious club, he’d definitely find his place there. ‘On an individual level, we all consider him to be among the best players in the world, but the advice I give to him is to continue to work and to attract the attention of the biggest clubs and the most ambitious clubs.’MORE: Juventus to battle Arsenal for £35m Real Madrid midfielder Dani CeballosMORE: Arsenal scouts urged Arsene Wenger to sign Juan Mata as Cesc Fabregas’ replacement A return to the Champions League could spare Arsenal’s star players from having to take a wage cut (Picture: Getty)Arsenal have told their players that securing Champions League qualification would see them avoid having to take wage cuts, as the north London club begins to assess the financial havoc caused by the global coronavirus pandemic.The Gunners were last in action just over a month ago when Alexandre Lacazette’s late goal secured a narrow win over West Ham at the Emirates Stadium.Arsenal, like all of their domestic and European rivals, have been in a state of limbo ever since and starved of the match day revenue which plays a significant role in covering their annual £230million wage bill. AdvertisementAdvertisementAccording to the Daily Telegraph, Arsenal tentatively opened talks with their players over the idea of wage cut earlier this week, but their proposal far from met with universal approval. ADVERTISEMENTArsenal haven’t qualified for the Champions League since 2016 and have spent the last three seasons in the Europa League, a competition they were knocked out of last month by Olympiacos. Comment Metro Sport ReporterSaturday 11 Apr 2020 8:24 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link2kShares Advertisementlast_img read more