My fellow editors at Fine Homebuilding — Justin Fink, Rob Yagid, and Brian Pontolilo — have been hosting a weekly podcast for several months. They recently invited me to join them in a sound studio at the Fine Homebuilding office to record a conversation on a variety of building science topics.This week, I’m taking a break from my usual blog-writing schedule, substituting a two-part podcast recording. Click on one of the green triangles to start listening. Martin Holladay’s previous blog: “Bill Rose’s Building Science To-Do List.” Here’s Part 2: RELATED PODCASTS Green Architects’ Lounge: An Interview With Martin Holladay, Part 1Green Architects’ Lounge: An Interview With Martin Holladay, Part 2House Planning Help Podcast: Interview with Martin Holladay Articles mentioned in Part 2 of the podcast include:How to Build an Insulated Cathedral CeilingSite-Built Ventilation Baffles for RoofsHow to Insulate a Basement Wall Designing a Good Ventilation SystemMakeup Air for Range Hoods Here’s Part 1: Articles mentioned in Part 1 of the podcast include:A SIP Roof Repair in WisconsinFlash-and-Batt Insulation Calculating the Minimum Thickness of Rigid Foam SheathingCombining Exterior Rigid Foam With Fluffy Insulation Click here to follow Martin Holladay on Twitter.
Mithali Raj was the best-placed Indian batswoman at number three while Jhulan Goswami was the country’s highest-ranked bowler at second in the ICC Women’s T20I Player Rankings which were launched in Colombo on Monday. Another Indian, Harpreet Kaur, was in the sixth spot in the batting list. Mithali had 652 rating points while Jhulan rose to the second position with 653 points. Amita Sharma took the fifth position in the all-rounder’s charts with 205 points. England’s Sarah Taylor and Lisa Sthalekar of Australia were the number one ranked batswoman and bowler, respectively. The launch ceremony took place two days before the start of ICC Women’s World Twenty20 in Galle. Taylor, who recently won the ICC Women’s T20I Cricketer of the Year Award, leads the batting table with 691 ratings points. England captain Charlotte Edwards is in second spot and trails Taylor by just nine points. The top 20 list includes five batswomen each from Australia and England, three from West Indies and two each from India and New Zealand. In the bowlers’ category, Australia’s Lisa Sthalekar leads the field with 666 ratings points, followed by Goswami of India with 653. The bowlers’ table features five players from Australia and seven from England. Sthalekar has picked 56 wickets in 46 T20Is with a best of four for 18. Only Anisa Mohammed of West Indies has picked more wickets (62 in 43 T20Is). Sthalekar also leads the all-rounders’ category with 356 ratings points, thanks to 604 runs in addition to those 56 wickets. West Indies’ Stafanie Taylor is in second place with 353 points.advertisement
DefinitionCompartment syndrome is a serious condition that involves increased pressure in a muscle compartment. It can lead to muscle and nerve damage and problems with blood flow.Causes, incidence, and risk factorsThick layers of tissue, called fascia, separate groups of muscles in the arms and legs from each other. Inside each layer of fascia is a confined space, called a compartment. The compartment includes the muscle tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. Fascia surrounds these structures, similar to the way in which insulation covers wires.Fascia do not expand. Any swelling in a compartment will lead to increased pressure in that area, which will press on the muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. If this pressure is high enough, blood flow to the compartment will be blocked. This can lead to permanent injury to the muscle and nerves. If the pressure lasts long enough, the muscles may die and the arm or leg will not work any more. It may need to be amputated.Swelling that leads to compartment syndrome occurs from trauma such as a car accident or crush injury, or surgery. Swelling can also be caused by complex fractures or soft tissue injuries due to trauma.Long-term (chronic) compartment syndrome can be caused by repetitive activities, such as running. The pressure in a compartment only increases during that activity.Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm, although it can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh, and upper arm.SymptomsCompartment syndrome causessevere pain that does not go away when you take pain medicine or raise the affected area. In more severe cases, symptoms may include:advertisementDecreased sensationNumbness and tinglingPaleness of skinSevere pain that gets worseWeaknessSigns and testsA physical exam will reveal:Pain when the area is squeezedExtreme pain when you move the affected area (for example, a person with compartment syndrome in the foot or lower leg will have severe pain when moving the toes up and down)Swelling in the areaTo confirm the diagosis, the doctor or nurse may need to directly measure the pressure in the compartment. This is done using a needle attached to a pressure meter, which is placed into the body area. The test must be done during and after an activity that causes pain.TreatmentSurgery is needed immediately. Delaying surgery can lead to permanent damage.Long surgical cuts are made through the muscle tissue to relieve the pressure. The wounds can be left open (covered with a sterile dressing) and closed during a second surgery, usually 48 – 72 hours later.Skin grafts may be needed to close the wound.If a cast or bandage is causing the problem, the dressing should be loosened or cut down to relieve the pressure.Expectations (prognosis)With prompt diagnosis and treatment, the outlook is excellent for recovery of the muscles and nerves inside the compartment. However, the overall prognosis will be determined by the injury leading to the syndrome.Permanent nerve injury and loss of muscle function can result if the diagnosis is delayed. This is more common when the injured person is unconscious or heavily sedated and cannot complain of pain. Permanent nerve injury can occur after 12 – 24 hours of compression.ComplicationsComplications include permanent injury to nerves and muscles that can dramatically impair function. (See: Volkmanns ischemia)In more severe cases, amputation may be required.Calling your health care providerCall your health care provider if you have had an injury and have severe swelling or pain that does not improve with pain medications.PreventionThere is probably no way to prevent this condition; however, early diagnosis and treatment will help prevent many of the complications.Persons with casts need to be made aware of the risk of swelling. They should see their health care provider or go to the emergency room if pain under the cast increases despite pain medicines and raising the area.ReferencesTwaddle BC, Amendola A. Compartment syndrome. In: Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Levine AM, Trafton PG, Krettek C, eds. Skeletal Trauma. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2008:chap 13.Geiderman JM, Katz D. General principles of orthopedic injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen??s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 46.Marshall ST, Browner BD. Emergency care of musculoskeletal injuries. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL,eds.Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 20.Review Date:8/11/2012Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.advertisement