From left: Eliot Spitzer, 420 Kent Avenue, Two Trees Management’s Jed Walentas and 300 Ashland Place in Brooklyn (Photos via Getty; ODA Architecture, 300 Ashland)While outer-borough loan activity in November fell short of October’s nearly $2 billion, it was an improvement over previous months. In total, the total volume of the top 10 loans was $1.34 billion — a big increase over the $494 million in activity in September.The largest loan was a $298 million refinancing deal for Eliot Spitzer’s massive development at 420 Kent Avenue in Williamsburg, followed by a $193.9 million loan for Two Trees Management’s rental building at 300 Ashland Place in Fort Greene.Along with those two giant loans, three other Brooklyn mortgages made it into the list. Here are the largest outer-borough loans for the month of November:1) Spitzer refi | Brooklyn | $298 millionEliot Spitzer’s development firm secured a $298 million mortgage loan from Citigroup as part of the $388 million refinancing package for its massive rental complex at 420 Kent Avenue in Williamsburg. The 1.5 million-square-foot waterfront complex consists of three glass towers designed by Eran Chen’s ODA New York, with 857 rental apartments, 25,000 square feet of retail and 80,000 square feet of outdoor space.2) All in on Ashland | Brooklyn | $193.9 millionTwo Trees Management, through the entity 20 Lafayette, borrowed $193.9 million from Wells Fargo Bank for its 35-story, 379-unit rental apartment building at 300 Ashland Place in Fort Greene. Designed by TEN Arquitectos’ Enrique Norten and Ismael Leyva Architects, the luxury rental apartment building opened in 2017.3) Alexander’s apartments | Queens | $94 millionVornado Realty Trust borrowed $94 million from Wells Fargo for The Alexander, a 312-unit residential building at 61-01 Junction Boulevard in Rego Park. The property is part of Alexander’s, a real estate investment trust controlled by Vornado. The interest-only loan has a fixed rate of 2.63 percent and matures in November 2027, according to Vornado’s financial statements.4) Borrowing in the Bronx | Bronx | $54 millionJCS Realty Group landed on three loans totaling $54 million for its project to develop a 12-story mixed-use building in Mott Haven. The project, featuring 215 apartments and 4,300 square feet of commercial space, will be located at 276 Grand Concourse. The lender was S3 Capital Partners, through an entity called S3 RE 276 GC Funding.5) Borrowing in the Bronx, pt. 2 | Bronx | $44.2 millionRelated Companies, through the entity Related Retail Hub, borrowed $44.2 million for three parcels at 2984 Third Avenue and 3006 Third Avenue, as well as a vacant lot on Bergen Avenue in the Bronx, from Goldman Sachs Bank.6) Flush with cash | Brooklyn | $40 millionRiverside Developers USA, through the entity Flushing & Little Nassau, borrowed $40 million from Bank Leumi USA for two parcels at 376 and 378 Flushing Avenue in Bedford-Stuyvesant. Riverside plans to build an eight-story, mixed-use building on the two sites, featuring 75 residential units and about 10,000 square feet of commercial space.7) Banking on Bergen | Brooklyn | $30 millionAlma Realty, through the entity 467-75 St. Marks Ave. Assoc., borrowed $30 million from Deutsche Bank for 880 Bergen Street in Crown Heights. The parcel houses a 14-story multifamily building with 136 apartments.8) Look for the Helpers | Bronx | $27.8 millionHelp USA., a housing advocacy nonprofit, through the entity Home Simpson, borrowed $27.8 million from Sterling National Bank for 1210 Simpson Street in the Bronx. The nonprofit plans to construct a seven-story, 72-unit community facility on that site.9) Eight is great | Bronx | $25.9 millionBenzion Wachsman’s Andrews Plaza Holdings borrowed $25.9 million from New York City Community Bank for eight parcels in the Bronx: 1725 and 1760 Andrews Avenue South; 1759-1761 Montgomery Avenue; 1785 and 1800 Popham Avenue; 1820 Phelan Place; 1840 Sedgwick Avenue; and Billingsley Terrace. Seven of those parcels are home to multifamily buildings, while the eighth at Billingsley Terrace is a vacant lot.10) Turner back time | Brooklyn | $25 millionTurner Towers Cooperative borrowed $25 million from Morgan Stanley for its site at 135 Eastern Parkway in Prospect Heights. Built in 1926, the 15-story, 186-unit building was initially a rental apartment complex, but was later turned into a cooperative, according to Streeteasy.Read moreOuter-borough loan activity fired up in OctoberThese were the top outer-borough loans in SeptemberSpitzer snags $388M loan for Williamsburg complex Email Address* Message* Contact Akiko Matsuda Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedinShare via Email Share via Shortlink TagsbrooklynCommercial Real EstateMultifamily MarketQueensthe Bronx Full Name* Share via Shortlink
Water-soluble and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates were extracted from leaves, shoots, roots, rhizomes and flowers ofParodiochloa flabellata (Lam.) Rasp. (=Poa flabellata (Lam.) Hook f.) throughout a growing season. Very high levels of soluble carbohydrates were found in the shoot, comprising up to 71% of the shoot dry weight. There was no significant storage in the rhizome. It is suggested that the production of storage fructans with a degree of polymerization greater than 14, rather than oligosaccharides or starch, may be related to the cold environment. Relationships between the onset of senescence and levels of fructans suggest that recovery of sugars from dying tissue is high. The sugar reserves together with preformation of the flowers should ensure production of seed however poor the summer or long the winter might be. The high levels of fructans may partly inhibit growth but may also offer some degree of freezing resistance.
1. The kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase (both forward and back reaction) in cardiac and skeletal muscle of an Antarctic teleost have been compared with a temperate teleost of comparable morphology and ecology.2. In both species the forward reaction (pyruvate to lactate) is maximally activated at 2.5–4 mM pyruvate and inhibited above this level.3. The Michaelis constant (Km) for pyruvate is not significantly different between muscle types or between species when measured at their normal environmental temperature.4. Km for pyruvate varies with temperature in a positive direction.5. The back reaction (lactate to pyruvate) is maximally activated by 12–16 mM lactate but only in skeletal muscle of the antarctic species is there inhibition above this level.6.6. The Km for lactate is significantly (P<0.05) lower in the Antarctic fish cardiac muscle.7.7. While the two species are morphologically and ecologically similar, differences at the biochemical level are discussed with respect to environmental temperature range and conservation of enzymic characteristics.
The activity and behaviour of a free-living Antarctic fish,Notothenia coriiceps Richardson (formerlyN. neglecta), was investigated using a high-sensitivity, underwater TV camera at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. Detailed observations of the 33 cm TL (total length) fish were made over a period of 6 d in austral summer (February 1992), for a total 69.5 h. Natural light at 2.5 m depth allowed viewing from 1 h before sunrise to 1 h after sunset. The fish stayed in a territory within 3 m of a small cave for >98% of the time, and made between 1 to 148 swims d-1, of which 92.5% were brief (<15 s) feeding attempts. On average, 1.7% of each day was engaged in locomotion, including 1.2% swimming and 0.5% manoeuvring. Swimming was generally slow, at 16 knots prevailed indicating that large waves reduced activity. A suspected diurnal activity rhythm was not statistically significant. The fish is an ambush-predator, and it took most of its prey from the water column but some off macroalgae or the seabed. Ventilation rate was slightly higher after activity, and peaked after an encounter with anotherN. coriiceps.
This paper presents results from the first systematic survey of VLF wave activity at Halley, Antarctica (76 °S, 27 °W, L = 4.3). Beginning in 1971, the peak, average and minimum (P, A, M) signal levels observed in four frequency bands centred on 0.75 kHz, 1.25 kHz, 3.2 kHz and 9.6 kHz have been recorded every 5 min. At these frequencies the observed radio noise is largely natural, the waves being generated either in the magnetosphere (e.g. chorus, hiss, etc.) or near the ground, the latter principally from lightning discharges (radio atmospherics, or “spherics”) which reach the receiver after propagating some distance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (lightning does not occur in the immediate vicinity of Halley). Here we analyse the observations for 1984, the first complete year for which we have data in digital form, in terms of thunderstorm regions, as a benchmark for more extended studies of possible long-term change in global lightning activity. The data are presented in compressed colour graphic format which facilitates the identification of periodic (diurnal and annual) and aperiodic variations. At 3.2 kHz, attenuation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide is severe, and only relatively few spherics, from close lighting source regions, are observed. Thus, whilst the 3.2 M channel is insensitive to lightning, and responds mostly to magnetospheric emissions, the 3.2 P channel is dominated by spherics. The 3.2 P data show a marked diurnal and seasonal variation symmetrical about Halley local noon and about the solstices, consistent with nearby sources and attenuation rates for subionospheric propagation which are much greater during the day than at night. At 9.6 kHz, waveguide attenuation is much lower (and there is less difference between day and night), and the minimum channel is dominated by a continuum of spheric noise originating from globally distributed distant source regions, notably those in the tropics. Consequently, there is no control by the local dawn-dusk terminator; the diurnal and seasonal variation is not symmetrical about Halley local noon and the solstices but consists of a quasi-sinusoidal diurnal variation, in which the phases of the minimum and maximum vary during the year: ~07 LT (LT∼-UT−2h at Halley) and ~17 LT in December (summer) and ~10 LT and ~21 LT in June (winter). Agreement between the observations and the CCIR (1983) empirical model is poor. A somewhat better fit is given by a simple model in which thunderstorm regions consist of point sources having radiated powers which vary with local time and season, the total effect at Halley being modelled as the sum of contributions from these sources.
We utilise hydroxyl observations from the MLS/Aura satellite instrument to study the latitudinal extent of particle forcing in the northern polar region during the January 2005 solar proton event. MLS is the first satellite instrument to observe HOx changes during such an event. We also predict the hydroxyl changes with respect to the magnetic latitude by the Sodankyla Ion and Neutral Chemistry model, estimating the variable magnetic cutoff energies for protons using a parameterisation based on magnetosphere modelling and the planetary magnetic index K-p. In the middle and lower mesosphere, HOx species are good indicators of the changes in the atmosphere during solar proton events, because they respond rapidly to both increases and decreases in proton forcing. Also, atmospheric transport has a negligible effect on HOx because of its short chemical lifetime. The observations indicate the boundary of the proton forcing and a transition region, from none to the ‘full’ effect, which ranges from about 57 to 64 degrees of magnetic latitude. When saturating the rigidity cutoff K-p at 6 in the model, as suggested by earlier studies using observations of cosmic radio noise absorption, the equatorward boundary of the transition region is offset by approximate to 2 degrees polewards compared with the data, thus the latitudinal extent of the proton forcing in the atmosphere is underestimated. However, the model predictions are in reasonable agreement with the MLS measurements when the K-p index is allowed to vary within its nominal range, i.e., from 1 to 9 in the cutoff calculation.
It has long been maintained that the majority of terrestrial Antarctic species are relatively recent, post last glacial maximum, arrivals with perhaps a few microbial or protozoan taxa being substantially older. Recent studies have questioned this ‘recolonization hypothesis’, though the range of taxa examined has been limited. Here, we present the first large-scale study for mites, one of two dominant terrestrial arthropod groups in the region. Specifically, we provide a broad-scale molecular phylogeny of a biologically significant group of ameronothroid mites from across the maritime and sub-Antarctic regions. Applying different dating approaches, we show that divergences among the ameronothroid mite genera Podacarus, Alaskozetes and Halozetes significantly predate the Pleistocene and provide evidence of independent dispersals across the Antarctic Polar Front. Our data add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that many taxa have survived glaciation of the Antarctic continent and the sub-Antarctic islands. Moreover, they also provide evidence of a relatively uncommon trend of dispersals from islands to continental mainlands. Within the ameronothroid mites, two distinct clades with specific habitat preferences ( marine intertidal versus terrestrial/supralittoral) exist, supporting a model of within-habitat speciation rather than colonization from marine refugia to terrestrial habitats. The present results provide additional impetus for a search for terrestrial refugia in an area previously thought to have lacked ice-free ground during glacial maxima.
As part of a collaborative program between British Antarctic Survey and Utah State University, measurements were made using an all-sky airglow imager located at the U.K. Halley Station (76°S, 27°W) during the 2000 and 2001 austral winter seasons from April through to early September. A co-located imaging Doppler interferometer was utilized to obtain coincident wind measurements for a total of 171 wave events. This study comprises the first detailed climatological investigation of the propagation nature (freely propagating, Doppler ducted, or evanescent) of individual quasi-monochromatic, short-period wave events at a high southern latitude. Distributions of the derived vertical wavelength exhibit an interquartile range from ∼16–48 km with a median vertical wavelength of 21 km. The majority of the wave events were found to be freely propagating waves, with only ∼5% exhibiting a clear Doppler ducted signature, while 15% of the waves were found to be evanescent in nature. Although no coincident temperature measurements were available, subsequent SABER temperature measurements suggest that up to ∼28% of the measured temperature profiles are capable of providing a ducted environment for the observed wave field. This is in sharp contrast to findings at mid- and low latitudes where these waves have been shown to be prone to Doppler ducted motion. It is suggested that the relatively weak wind field and associated tidal wind amplitudes over Halley are not capable of forming a significant Doppler ducted region to sustain a substantial amount of ducted waves belonging to the detectable spectrum of the airglow imager. As these wind fields are comparable to wind fields found at other polar latitudes, we hypothesize that the majority of short-period gravity waves observed in the polar mesosphere are freely propagating and thus an important source of energy transfer into the MLT region.
Sub-ionospheric radio-wave data from an AARDDVARK receiver located in Churchill, Canada, is analysed to determine the characteristics of electron precipitation into the atmosphere over the range 3 < L 30 keV precipitation flux determined by the AARDDVARK technique was found to be ±10%. Peak >30 keV precipitation fluxes of AARDDVARK-derived precipitation flux during the main- and recovery-phase of the largest geomagnetic storm, that started on 04 August 2010, were >105 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The largest fluxes observed by AARDDVARK occurred on the dayside, and were delayed by several days from the start of the geomagnetic disturbance. During the main phase of the disturbances nightside fluxes were dominant. Significant differences in flux estimates between POES, AARDDVARK and the riometer were found after the main phase of the largest disturbance, with evidence provided to suggest that >700 keV electron precipitation was occurring. Currently the presence of such relativistic electron precipitation introduces some uncertainty in the analysis of AARDDVARK data, given the assumption of a power-law electron precipitation spectrum.
The influence of different wind stress bulk formulae on the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes is investigated using an idealised channel model. Surface/mixed layer properties are found to be sensitive to the use of the relative wind stress formulation, where the wind stress depends on the difference between the ocean and atmosphere velocities. Previous work has highlighted the surface eddy damping effect of this formulation, which we find leads to increased circumpolar transport. Nevertheless the transport due to thermal wind shear does lose sensitivity to wind stress changes at sufficiently high wind stress. In contrast, the sensitivity of the meridional overturning circulation is broadly the same regardless of the bulk formula used due to the adiabatic nature of the relative wind stress damping. This is a consequence of the steepening of isopycnals offsetting the reduction in eddy diffusivity in their contribution to the eddy bolus overturning, as predicted using a residual mean framework.